Review: Universal antiviral surface solution against COVID-19
In the current scenario, there is critical global demand for the protection of daily handling surfaces from the viral contamination to limit the spread of COVID-19 infection. The nanotechnologists and material scientists offer sustainable solutions to develop antiviral surface coatings for various substrates including fabrics, plastics, metal, wood, food stuffs etc. to face current pandemic period. They create or propose antiviral surfaces by coating them with nanomaterials which interact with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to inhibit the viral entry to the host cell. Such nanomaterials involve metal/metal oxide nanoparticles, hierarchical metal/metal oxide nanostructures, electrospun polymer nanofibers, graphene nanosheets, chitosan nanoparticles, curcumin nanoparticles, etched nanostructures etc.
The antiviral mechanism involves the repletion (depletion) of the spike glycoprotein that anchors to surfaces by the nanocoating and makes the spike glycoprotein and viral nucleotides inactive. The nature of interaction between the nanomaterial and virus depends on the type nanostructure coating over the surface. It was found that functional coating materials can be developed using nanomaterials as their polymer nanocomposites. The various aspects of antiviral nanocoatings including the mechanism of interaction with the Corona Virus, the different type of nanocoatings developed for various substrates, future research areas, new opportunities and challenges are reviewed in the recently published article.
The review has been published in Progress in Organic Coatings, Volume 163, February 2022.