Dental implants: Coating against peri-implantitis

Researchers have decribed the synthesis of cross-linked chitosan by calcium phosphate as long-term drug delivery coating with cytocompatibility.

The chair in a dental practice as a symbolic image.
All drug-containing coatings exhibited good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).  Image source: diggersrestdental - Pixabay (symbol image).

Antimicrobial therapy was highly efficient at peri-implant infection; however, the in vitro study indicated that high doses of drug had adverse effect on cells. In the new study, cefazolin-containing coatings on titanium with cytocompatibility and sustainable release properties using physically cross-linked chitosan as the drug carrier were synthesised. Two drug carrier coatings, cefazolin/chitosan (P-Z@C) and cefazolin/chitosan cross-linked by calcium phosphate (P-Z@C/CP), were electrophoretically deposited on titanium using pulsed direct current (DC) power. The microstructures, drug loadings, drug release rates, antibacterial abilities, and cytotoxicities of the coatings were investigated.

Good antibacterial activity

Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the calcium phosphate granules were distributed in a chitosan matrix in the P-Z@C/CP coating, and the calcium phosphate granules had a lower drug concentration than that of the surrounding chitosan. The drug content of the P-Z@C coating (259.6 μg/cm2) was approximately thrice that of the P-Z@C/CP coating (95.4 μg/cm2). However, the drug release rate of the P-Z@C coating (75.0 %) was slower than that of the P-Z@C/CP coating (85.9 %) after 30 days. The high sustainable drug-release ability of the P-Z@C coating is attributed to its low swelling ratio. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the cell numbers between the P-Z@C/CP coating and titanium, but the P-Z@C coating had decreased cell numbers comparing with titanium. After 24 h, all the drug-containing coatings exhibited good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

The study has been published in Progress in Organic Coatings, Volume 173, December 2022.

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